"Põrgu" / Hell

"Põrgu" or "Hell"

An Estonian grotesque animated film by Rein Raamat, Tallinnfilm, 1983. The animation brings three Eduard Viiralt (Wiiralt) engravings from the 1930's to life:

”The Preacher“
Eduard Wiiralt Preacher 1930
Eduard Wiiralt Cabaret
and “Hell”
Eduard Wiiralt Hell Porgu 1932

"The engravings and the animation were created in a time of great uncertainties: in the 1930's Viiralt was reacting to the anticipation of the War and in the 1980's Raamat was having a presentiment of the chaos that the USSR’s collapse would bring about. Both depicting a feast in the time of plague, indulgence, and surreal satirical representations of people’s vices."
JgOug8K Timely_Querulous_Creature_size_restricted tumblr_m32nrcgb_Mm1qfjta1o1_500

*More Art by Wiiralt:
5518093d8f679114b2e5fe18cd623e83 Madu_IEd_Wllustr_Pushkini_La_Gab 958f60970d19f8a0d958b19d1ba25192 Tants_Ed_WIllustr_Pushkini_La_Ga kud_Ed_Will_Pushkini_Gabrielide 4571b3107ed06231581250ab81fe8d14 250_Seltskond 01_eduard_wiiralt


First, for those not familiar with who he is:
Mark Brandon "Chopper" Read (November 17, 1954 – October 9, 2013) was an Australian convicted criminal, gang member and author.

Read was born to a former army and Korean War veteran father and a mother who was a devout Seventh-day Adventist. He was placed in a children's home for the first five years of his life. His father, usually on his mother's recommendation, would beat him often as a child. Read was made a ward of the state by the age of 14 and was placed in several mental institutions as a teenager, where he underwent electroshock therapy.

When he was still young, Read was already an accomplished street fighter and the leader of the Surrey Road gang. He began his criminal career by robbing drug dealers, based in massage parlours in the Prahran area. He later graduated to kidnapping and torturing members of the criminal underworld, often using a blowtorch or bolt cutters to remove the toes of his victims as an incentive for them to produce enough money so that Read would leave them alive.

Read spent only 13 months outside prison between the ages of 20 and 38, having been convicted of crimes including armed robbery, firearm offences, assault, arson, impersonating a police officer and kidnapping. While in Pentridge Prison's H division in the late 1970s, Read launched a prison war. His gang, dubbed "The Overcoat Gang" because they wore long coats all year round to conceal their weapons, were involved in several hundred acts of violence against a larger opposing gang during this period. Around this time, Read had a fellow inmate cut both of his ears off in order to be able to leave H division temporarily.

Read was ambushed and stabbed by members of his own gang in a sneak attack when they felt that his plan to cripple every other inmate in the entire division and win the gang war in one fell swoop was going too far. Another theory is that James "Jimmy" Loughnan, a longtime friend of Read, with Patrick "Blue" Barnes, wished to benefit from a contract put on Read's head by the Painters' and Dockers' Union. Read lost several feet of intestine in the attack. At the time Read was serving a 16 and a half-year sentence after attacking a judge."

Now this should be funnier..
*I have no idea who this guy is. Apparently, from what I read without really looking into it, he's some Australian comedian who did a Chopper impression that people loved so he went around doing some stand-up as the 'character' and even got this late-night show for a while that basically revolved around the Chopper skits, which I thought were funny as shit:
There's actually been a movie made about him too:

Starring Eric Bana as Chopper: 

and if you've never seen it...

House of Pain

An American documentary by James R. Whitney about his grandfather, Melvin Just, and the devastating consequences of the sexual abuse he inflicted on his family.

(Scroll to bottom to watch the full documentary)

Roger Ebert said the film was "one of the most powerful documentaries I've seen" and

"Just, Melvin," is a portrait of a family that still has open wounds and deep psychic scars after decades of abuse. The title refers to Melvin Just, who as a husband, father, stepfather and grandfather repeatedly committed incest and abuse against almost everyone in his family. Two of his stepdaughters were witnesses when he strangled a visiting nurse, a crime for which he was never tried. The survivors to this day are in a state of shock, which the camera plainly shows: Some live in campers or vans, and alcoholism and prostitution are symptoms.

The film was made by James Ronald Whitney, one of Melvin's grandsons, with the support of his mother, Ann Marie. It is not the first documentary about family abuse, but it is probably the most painful. It isn't uncommon to hear abuse or incest victims share their memories, but "Just, Melvin" does the unimaginable and shows the evil old man being confronted by the accusations, first in an extraordinary meeting with James, later in a family visit to his hospital room.

Whitney said after the screening that he had escaped the fate of other family members because of the strength of his mother, a woman who once tried to shoot Melvin, and who, strong and intelligent, steered him away from drugs and trouble and into show business (we see him as a winning dancer on "Star Search").

His film is not only devastating but subtle in its artistry, with great attention to a soundtrack that suggests the echoes of long-ago words of hate and current painful memories. Nothing in the film quite prepares us for the closing scenes at a burial service, where a pastor reads futile words of comfort while drunken family members alternate between grief and rage."

 Geoffrey Gilmore: 
"There are few subjects as abhorrent to our sensibilities as incest, particularly when it involves very young children, and Just, Melvin chronicles a truly monstrous case. The film tells the story of an individual whose path of destruction was so insidious and devastating that it's almost impossible not to be provoked to feelings as varied as sympathy, rage, and disgust. That this is not an account by an outsider but the story of a survivor makes it all the more remarkable and significant, but not any easier to digest.

James Ronald Whitney is the grandson of Melvin Just. His mother was abused and molested from a very early age, as were all her sisters and step- sisters. And as we consequently discover, the same is true of all the women in Melvin Just's second marriage. This litany of violation and mistreatment is especially disturbing because the film has an odd, almost-matter-of-fact tone. There is no need for dramatic histrionics. The reality of these confessions makes us witnesses to violence that is frighteningly genuine. The confessions themselves were perhaps triggered by the reopening of a case involving the killing of a social worker, a murder that undoubtedly was the act of Whitney's grandfather.

The fact that the filmmaker himself was also the subject of abuse and managed to 'escape' his madly dysfunctional upbringing just adds to the many elements that make this film so intriguing. But Just, Melvin is a story that will never have a happy ending, a chilling and candid portrait of the cycles and consequences of abuse."

Just, Melvin: Just Evil captures the history of extreme sexual abuse within one very confusing family. The story revolves around Melvin Just, a habitual child molester and a suspected murderer, and through him we soon discover the countless atrocities that affected nearly every member of the family for three generations. Certainly the interviews and testimonials are nothing short of jaw dropping, and the crimes discussed are of the most serious and horrendous imaginable. However, director James Ronald Whitney’s approach to such subject matter is perhaps the most unsettling aspect to the film.

As the grandson of Melvin Just, Whitney delves through his horrific ancestry while delivering what feels like scripted monologues, often while playing a grand piano. Even though the film’s theme is nothing short of ghastly, the director takes intermittent breaks from the family’s story to dwell on his quasi-successful past as a Star Search contestant, dancer, college cheerleader, pianist, and martial artist.
(It may be insensitive, but these sequences leave the viewer with the same creepy feelings one derives from Herzog documentaries.)
Like proposing marriage during a funeral, Whitney's inability to resist indulging in the spotlight, especially in such an odious context, is unfortunate. Even so, his encapsulation of the events is exceptionally effective.

Whitney’s disquieting moments of self-promotion sit in stark contrast with the surreal story of Melvin Just and his victims. The ancestral tree is rotten with child molestation, suicide attempts, incest, and substance abuse. The majority of women in Just’s two families recount numerous acts of abuse from infancy to their teenage years. As Melvin remarries, each time into a family ripe with young, pre-existing daughters, the list of abominations grows longer.

04 - Edited
Additionally, though it’s less highlighted in the film, many of the male members in the family describe being assaulted as well, or witnessing abuse at one point or another. Eerily enough, though not including the very brief and ambiguous confession of Whitney’s own experience, the men in film seem so thoroughly steeped in denial, and/or conditioned acceptance, that not only do they not recognize any apparent problem, they seem to be continuing in the hideous tradition: An effort which seems likely to produce many more generations crippled by life altering trauma.

The account of this family’s grievous past, accompanied by its seemingly inherent and infectious proclivity for tolerated sexual abuse, is really nothing short of stomach turning. Regardless of the director’s method, the creation of this film and the story being told is undeniably important. The sequences where Whitney speaks with his mother, Ann, as well as his aunts, are tangibly therapeutic, and – in an almost invasive way – touching. Whitney’s narration is not always the most irritating thing ever heard and, while I’m not a big fan of a documentary filmmaker's forced inclusion of themselves so deeply in their film, his declaration that he will not stop until Just is either dead or in prison – not to mention his one-on-one confrontations with Melvin during filming – create an interesting dynamic that promoted a sense of urgency.

Experiencing the admissions of these women and men and the sense of acceptance they share is uniquely unnerving. The lasting affects drove nearly every single entity of the bloodline into dire circumstances, immersed in substance abuse, physical abuse, and homelessness. (Many of the director’s aunts, in fact, lived in stalled cars, alongside current boyfriends, dogs, and cats.)

Above all, there is absolutely no attempt at providing an unbiased account of the acts committed, nor should there be. Just, Melvin: Just Evil is not a picture-perfect documentary. Its occasionally uneasy juxtaposition between child molestation and how well director Whitney can do the splits doesn’t make for the easiest ride down an already uncomfortable road. Nevertheless, the overall effect is heartbreaking, virtually unimaginable, and pretty fuckin' disturbing...

Five Random Facts About "Just, Melvin": 
  1.  This all happened in Northern California.
  2. Melvin Just died before the film was completed, and was never convicted for the murder of the county nurse.
  3. Grandma Fay was a collector of her “suitors'” underwear and he also won a pissing competition once against four guys. (don't ask)
  4. Whitney’s dad, estranged for decades, left Ann and James to join the Hell’s Angels when James was 9 years old. 
  5. Because this family makes The Wild and Wonderful Whites of West Virginia look like My 2 Dads, here’s the family tree: 

The Golden Gate Bridge

The Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate SF
is a movie star that people just love to destroy..

Construction began on January 5, 1933, but February 26th was the official ground breaking ceremony at Crissy Field
(Click to enlarge)

Three years after completing the transcontinental railroad, Charles Crocker, a railroad executive, made a presentation to the Marin County Board of Supervisors in which he laid out plans for a bridge that would span the Golden Gate Strait, the entrance to the ocean from San Francisco Bay. (The strait was named Chrysopylae, Greek for “golden gate,” by U.S. Army Captain John Fremont in 1846.) Many didn’t believe it could be done: At its narrowest point, the strait was still more than a mile wide, with turbulent currents ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 knots. The project wouldn’t be seriously considered until 1919, when the San Francisco Board of Supervisors had the city's engineer, Michael O’Shaughnessy, do a study to determine the feasibility of a bridge. The initial results estimated that constructing a bridge would cost $100 million.

In 1920, O’Shaughnessy sent letters to three prominent engineers inquiring about building a bridge over the strait: Joseph B. Strauss, Francis C. McMath, and Gustav Lindenthal. Strauss submitted plans for a symmetrical cantilever-suspension hybrid span, which he had developed and later patented. Reports vary, but Strauss thought he could build the bridge for $17 million or $27 million.

Bay Area Bay Area
The bridge commission hid the design from the public for a year (though Strauss was drumming up support for the bridge using his design during that time). When they did reveal it, the public wasn’t pleased. The local press called the design ugly, and one writer described it as “a ponderous, blunt bridge that combined a heavy tinker toy frame at each end with a short suspension span. It seemed to strain its way across the Golden Gate”.

Eventually, Strauss would abandon his design in favor of a more conventional suspension bridge.

Because the War Department owned the land on both sides of the strait, it had to authorize the construction of the bridge. A temporary construction permit was granted on December 24, 1924, and a final permit was issued on August 11, 1930.

"The Golden Gate Bridge in 1930 had 2300 lawsuits against it,” transit expert Rod Diridon told NBC Bay Area. One of those lawsuits was brought by the Southern Pacific Railroad, which owned 51 percent of the ferry company that took commuters and cars between San Francisco and Marin County. Ansel Adams and the Sierra Club were also opposed to the bridge, which they felt would mar the natural beauty of the strait.

According to the Federal Highway Administration, getting the bridge approved “took several favorable court rulings, an enabling act from the State legislature, two Federal hearings prior to approval from the U.S. Department of War (which had long feared that any bridge across San Francisco Bay would hinder navigation), a guarantee that local workers would have first crack at the jobs, and a mass boycott of the ferry service operated by the Southern Pacific Railroad.”

The engineer hired Charles A. Ellis, author of Essentials in the Theory of Framed Structures, in 1922. Ellis’s job would be to oversee bridge design and supervise construction. In 1925, he and Strauss brought Harvard University’s George F. Swain and Leon S. Moisseff, designer of New York City’s Manhattan Bridge, on as consultants. By the end of 1929, the team had switched from Strauss’s initial design to a suspension bridge designed by Moisseff. According to Purdue University, Ellis’s work “included performing thousands of calculations for the bridge, writing specifications for ten bridge construction contracts, and supervising the test boring and siting, which involved the complicated process of locating firm footing on the Marin shore.” He did his job tirelessly for three years, including spending several months figuring out the complex calculations with Moisseff.
Golden Blues
By November 1931, Strauss—who, according to PBS, “did not understand the complexity of the engineering work” and couldn’t understand why it was taking so long—ordered Ellis to take a vacation. Just three days before he was slated to return, Strauss sent a letter informing Ellis that he was to take an indefinite (and unpaid) vacation and turn all of his work over to his assistant.

Unable to find other work, Ellis continued to crunch the numbers on the Golden Gate Bridge, unpaid, for up to 70 hours a week. (He submitted his report in 1934; Strass and Moisseff ignored it.) He eventually took a job as a professor at Purdue, and when the bridge opened in 1937, Ellis received no credit for his work, despite the fact that he had, in his own words, designed “every nut and bolt on the darn thing.” His role in the bridge project wouldn’t be revealed until his passing in 1949.

Bay Area Bay Area

After years of setbacks and fundraising, Strauss and his team finally broke ground on the bridge on January 5, 1933. It was, apparently, a big event: According to the official program, there was a parade to Crissy Field, where, after opening remarks were given and a message from President Herbert Hoover was read, there was a 21-gun salute and a bridge was painted in the sky. Next there was a pageant where engineering students showed off an 80-foot-long model of the bridge containing carrier pigeons that were to take news of the groundbreaking all over California. Finally, San Francisco Mayor Angelo Rossi and bridge Board President William P. Filmer broke ground using a golden spade and a closing prayer was read. At least 100,000 people attended the celebration.

Take out any element of a suspension bridge, and the structure won’t stay standing for long—but the cables are particularly important: They're strung horizontally between two massive concrete blocks called anchorages on each side of the bridge, with additional vertical cables called suspender ropes attaching the main cable to the bridge’s deck (or roadway). Vehicles push down on the roadway, but the suspender ropes transfer that load to the main cables, which transfer it to the towers, which support most of the weight.

For the Golden Gate Bridge, Strauss needed cables that would be strong enough to support the structure of the bridge and bend 27 feet laterally in the Gate’s high winds—and they’d need to be made right there on the construction site. So he turned to the experts: Roebling's Sons Co., which had made the cables for the Brooklyn Bridge 52 years earlier and spun them on site. For the Golden Gate Bridge, the company developed a method called parallel wire construction. The spinning began in 1935; PBS describes the process:
Golden Cables
Golden Cables
To spin the cables, 80,000 miles of steel wire less than 0.196 inch in diameter were bound in 1,600-pound spools and attached to the bridge's anchorages. A fixture within the anchorages called a strand shoe was used to secure the "dead wire" while a spinning wheel, or sheave, pulled a "live wire" across the bridge. Once it reached the opposite shore of the Gate, the live wire was secured onto the strand shoe, and the wheel returned with another loop of wire to begin the process again. … One wire at a time, the cables for the Golden Gate bridge were spun from tower to tower, anchorage to anchorage. The spinning was tedious; not only did it take time for the spinning wheel to travel the mile between the two shores, but the work had to be performed in a precise sequence, in order to create the balance needed for the cables to absorb the proper amount of wind pressure.
Golden Cables
Golden Cables
To get the spinning done within the time frame—14 months—and on-budget, the company created a split-tram system that would eventually be capable of spinning six wires at once, which allowed them to spin 1000 miles of wire in a single eight-hour shift. Thanks to Roebling's methods, the cables were finished eight months ahead of schedule.
Golden Cables
Golden Cables
The bridge’s two main cables are each 7659 feet long, over three feet in diameter, and contain 27,572 parallel wires. The largest cables ever spun, they’re long enough to circle the world at the equator more than three times.

The first step in the main cable construction was the erection of a “footwalk” which was suspended directly under where the main cables would then be spun.

Golden Gate SF
In the 1930s, the odds were not in a worker’s favor: On average, one man was killed per million dollars spent on a big project. 

Strauss wanted to beat those odds, and spent a ton of money on safety. Goofing off was forbidden: “Old Strauss enforced the rules,” Pete Williamson, one of the workers on the bridge, said. “All a guy had to do was to stand out there on one foot, and he was fired.” Workers had to wear glare-free goggles, use hand and face cream to protect their skin from the high winds, and go on special diets that Strauss believed would fend off dizziness. The engineer had the E.D. Bullard Company create special hard hats for the bridge workers, which they were required to wear at all times, and in 1936, Strauss installed a net under the bridge that cost $130,000. The device, similar to what’s strung below the circus trapeze, was manufactured by the J.L. Stuart Company and extended 10 feet wider than the bridge’s width and 15 feet longer than its length; it helped to speed construction while also giving workers a sense of security. It saved 19 men who otherwise would have plummeted into the water below; they were said to belong to the Halfway to Hell Club.
For most of the construction, Strauss’s site was fatality-free. Then, just a few months before the bridge opened, one worker was killed by a falling derrick. A few weeks after that, scaffolding collapsed, falling into the net with 12 workers holding on. The net tore and the scaffolding plunged into the water 220 feet below, killing 10. One survivor, 26-year-old Slim Lambert, recalled, "As I was falling, a piece of lumber fell on my head. I was almost unconscious. Then the icy water of the channel brought me to." He had broken his shoulder, some ribs, and a few neck vertebrae, but managed to swim to shore.

Golden Gate SF
Albert "Frenchy" Gales, a construction worker, was on top of the south tower when the quake hit in June 1935. “[The tower] was so limber the tower swayed 16 feet each way,” he later said. “There were 12 or 13 guys on top with no way to get down. The elevator wouldn’t run. The whole thing would sway toward the ocean, guys would say, ‘here we go!’ Then it would sway back, toward the Bay. Guys were laying on the deck, throwing up and everything. I figured if we go in, the iron would hit the water first.”

When the original rivets become corroded, they’re replaced with galvanized high-strength bolts. Proposed colors for the bridge included carbon gray, aluminum, or black, and the U.S. Navy wanted black with yellow stripes (for greater visibility). But Irving Morrow, the consulting architect (who was also responsible for the bridge’s Art Deco look), didn’t want any of those colors: The black was unattractive and would reduce the scale of his bridge; aluminum would make the towers look tiny.

Orange Fog
In the end, he was inspired by the red primer the steel beams had been coated in at the factories back east, and settled on International Orange, which complemented the bridge’s natural surroundings but also helped the structure stand out from the sea and sky. “The effect of International Orange is as highly pleasing as it is unusual in the realm of engineering,” Morrow said. As an added benefit, the color is highly visible in fog.
Orange Fog
*The CMYK formula for International Orange is Cyan: 0 percent, Magenta: 69 percent, Yellow: 100 percent, Black: 6 percent.
CMYK Color Wheel
The paint for the bridge is currently supplied by Sherwin-Williams. The exact color's not available to the public, but supposedly their color "Fireweed" is the closest (it looks a lot darker to me, but whatever..)
Orange 1 Orange 2 Orange 3

It took a little over four years to build the bridge, and the total cost of the project was $35 million. When the bridge was completed, San Francisco feted it for a solid week; The Golden Gate Bridge Fiesta lasted from May 27 to June 2. Strauss—an engineer as well as a poet—read a poem he penned for the occasion, called “The Mighty Task is Done,” which begins:

At last the mighty task is done;
Resplendent in the western sun
The Bridge looms mountain high;
Its titan piers grip ocean floor,
Its great steel arms link shore with shore,
Its towers pierce the sky.

Opening day was “Pedestrian Day,” and 15,000 people an hour went through the turnstiles, each paying 25 cents to cross; some traversed the bridge on stilts and roller skates or on unicycles. 
Vendors set up along the roadway sold an estimated 50,000 hot dogs. 

Pedestrian Day

At noon on May 28, FDR pressed a telegraph key in the White House that announced the bridge’s opening to the entire world, and at 3 p.m. a fleet of 42 Navy ships sailed under the bridge; the day was capped off by a fireworks display at 10 p.m. At some point during the celebration, a Fiesta Queen of the Golden Gate Bridge was crowned, although reports differ as to who won.
(This playlist has various drone footage of the Golden Gate Bridge & S.F. Bay Area with music but, if you want to skip that, there's also some old silent black-and-white footage from the Golden Gate Bridge Opening Day)

Golden Gate SF
When the bridge opened in 1937, the weight of the bridge along with its anchorages and approaches was 894,500 tons. Re-decking in 1986 reduced the total weight to 887,000 tons.
Golden Gate SF
The longest closure in the Golden Gate’s history occurred on December 3, 1983, when winds reached 75 mph; the roadway was shut down for three hours and 27 minutes. But there have been full closures for anniversaries and construction work, and brief closures—on two separate occasions—for visiting dignitaries Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Charles de Gaulle.
The Bridge has an influence in directing the fog as it pushes up and pours down around the Bridge. Sometimes, high pressure squashes it close to the ground.

Golden Gate SF
Golden Gate SF
Bridge Toll started out at 50 cents.
Currently, an average of over 100,000 vehicles use the Golden Gate Bridge every day. Approximately 40 million vehicles used it in 2003, which is not much more than its first year’s volume of 33 million. There have been over 1.8 billion crossings since it opened in 1937.

Golden Gate SF
Golden Gate SF
50th Anniversary: Officials expected a maximum of 50,000 people to attend the bridge’s 50th anniversary celebration on May 24, 1987. Instead, 800,000 people showed up, and what happened next, as described in a report filed the year after the incident, sounds like a nightmare:
The Golden Gate Bridge responded visibly to the large live load with a reported deflection of its roadway of almost 10 feet at the midspan. ... The situation was compounded by the 17 mph winds blowing across San Francisco Bay. Suspension bridges are vulnerable to wind loads and, while the bridge was swaying from side to side because of the winds and flattening under the heavy live load, near panic conditions resulted. People were suffering from nausea and claustrophobia in the density of the crowd, making it increasingly difficult to alleviate the situation by directing the people away from the bridge.
“The whole bridge flattened out—its whole arch disappeared,” Gary Giacomini, president of the Bridge District Board, said at the time. “The bridge had the greatest load factor of its 50-year life. The suspension cables at the center of the bridge were stretched as ‘tight as harp strings,’ while the lower cables near the tower seemed to flap in the wind … I thought, ‘Wow, this isn’t a good idea!'"
But there was never any reason to fear. According to the report, the bridge deck was designed to move 15 feet vertically and 27 feet from side to side, and Charles Seim, a former supervising bridge engineer with the state’s transportation department, said that “I knew we were exceeding design loads, but I wasn’t worried in the slightest. Even at the maximum design load of 5700 pounds per foot the stress in cables is only 40 percent of their yielding stress, that’s a large factor of safety.”

Golden Gate SF
Golden Gate SF
Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge

Golden Gate Bridge

Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate SF

Golden Gate Suicides

Golden Gate Bridge

Golden Gate Bridge

suicide nets

Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge

Golden Gate Bridge
If you've never been to the G.G. Bridge, or even if you have, here are some 'next-best-thing' views of it:

*Street View 1

*Street View 2

*Street View 3

*Street View 4

*Satellite View

*Map View

Bridge Walk: start

look forward | walk forward |

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